Turkish Journal of Pathology

Türk Patoloji Dergisi

Turkish Journal of Pathology

Turkish Journal of Pathology

2023, Vol 39, Num, 3     (Pages: 179-184)

Evaluation of the Interstitial Histological Lesions in Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Halide Nur URER 1, Hatice DINCER 2

1 Department of Pathology, 1University of Health Sciences Turkey, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, ISTANBUL, TURKEY
2 University of Health Sciences Turkey, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, ISTANBUL, TURKEY

DOI: 10.5146/tjpath.2022.01591
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Objective: Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a cystic lung disease characterized by the proliferation of parenchymal dendritic cells. The disease can become chronic or even cause pulmonary fibrosis. Our aim in this study was to investigate the typical histological findings and interstitial fibrosis in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis cases.

Material and Method: In the study, cases that had undergone diagnostic resection were screened. Smoking, histological stage (subacute, subacute-chronic), and cystic and eosinophilic granulomas were confirmed in the cases. In addition to emphysema, chronic nonspecific bronchiolitis, interstitial fibrosis (subpleural-paraseptal fibrosis, peribronchial fibrosis, fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia), honeycomb-type fibrocysts, and unexpected lesions were investigated. Descriptive and comparative (Fisher exact test) statistical analyses were used in the study (p<0.05).

Results: A total of 27 cases were detected; age distribution was 17-68 (36.4). Smoking was present in 15 (55.5%) cases. Six (22.2%) cases were subacute, and 21 (7.7%) cases were subacute-chronic histological stage. A cystic lesion was present in 22 (81.4%) cases. All cases had emphysema accompanying the underlying lesions. Chronic nonspecific bronchiolitis was detected in 14 (51.8%) cases. Interstitial fibrosis was detected in 8 (29.6%) patients. Compared to interstitial fibrosis and nonfibrosis, there was no significant difference between being younger than 39 years, gender, smoking, and histological stage (p=0.41; 1; 0.69; 0.63, respectively).

Conclusion: There is a risk of developing interstitial fibrosis patterns and honeycomb-type fibrocysts in the progression of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Histopathological evaluation can play an important role in the detection of risk groups.

Keywords : Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell, Pulmonary fibrosis, Smoking